Shapirothe term "sexism" was most likely coined on November 18,by Pauline M. Sexism is intended to rhyme with racism. Wellsand Harriet Martineau described systems of gender inequalitybut did not use the term sexism, which was coined later. Sociologists who adopted the functionalist paradigm, e.
Tonya Reiman Gender Differences in Communication Communication is the means by which ideas and information are spread from person to person. People use communication to express feelings, emotions, opinions and values, to learn and teach, and to improve their status.
Communication is therefore vital to human interaction whether between parents and children, bosses and employees or even husband and wife.
The diversity and characteristics of those involved in any interaction can thus affect communication. Taking account of any diversity in interaction rather than assuming uniformity is important to achieving effective communication.
Good communication is difficult to master and can be a major source of strife in any situation or business. Gaps in communication arise when the intended message is not transmitted or the message is misunderstood. The resultant miscommunication is mainly due to the different styles of communication amongst people.
In order to understand the differences of communications patterns we should begin by considering the different elements of the communication process between the sender of the information and receiver.
In any form of communication, the sender has a message to transmit that becomes encoded. The receiver obtains this encoded message via some medium or channel e.
In order for the communication process to work both the sender and the receiver must understand the codes. As an example consider the encrypted messages that were sent during World War II. In order for the receiver to understand the message, knowledge of the code was important.
We can even consider the situation of an English speaker in Japan. For effective communication either one or both parties should be able to understand and communicate in the language of the other. Good and effective communication can therefore be affected by many things including the situation, time, culture, and gender.
The assertion that gender affects communication in different ways has been accepted by a large part of the population today. Gender differences in communication may pose problems in interpersonal interactions leading to intolerance, resentment, stress and decreased productivity.
This is extremely critical in business organizations but even moreso in your everyday world and therefore an examination of these differences in the first step to understanding the issues involved and moving towards better communication.
In any study of communication, there is variability in what is meant by "communication". Some individuals may consider only the verbal attributes whereas yet others will consider nonverbal interactions -- and the smart will focus on both.
Additionally research studies have focused either on both the microscopic and the macroscopic levels of communication. In this discussion, both verbal and nonverbal aspects of communication will be considered.
Gender communication Many people use the words gender and sex interchangeably, however these words do not mean the same thing. The word sex refers to the genetic and biological status of being male or female, while gender refers to the psychological and social manifestations of being male or female, i.
Gender therefore focuses on the social construct regarding the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one sex. It concentrates on the roles and responsibilities, expectations, and aptitude of men and women that are learned, and modified as a result of the interaction of culture, society and environment.
There are two views regarding gender -- the essentialist and the social constructionist views Robb, The essentialist view gender as that with which we were born, being part of our genetic make-up.
The male and female roles are therefore distinct identities and they shape behavior. However, this view might be somewhat limited since it does not account for the masculine and feminine attributes inherent in people.
The social constructionist upholds the idea that psychological conditioning early in life leads to who we are and become as a result of the social interactions. Therefore in this view gender is shaped by society, culture and time. What then is gender communication? Several have used the term to signify the differences in communication due to biology and others use it to represent differences resulting from social, psychological and cultural interactions.
For most researchers gender communication focuses on the expressions used by one gender in the relationships and roles between people. The existence of a difference in gender communication has been a topic of interest for decades with generalizations being made between the sexes.
A large volume of work has been published both in the mainstream popular books and in the research arena with linguistic scholars stressing the differences in communication style.
While a large volume of literary work on the subject exists, the findings are not consistent and much controversy arises mainly as a result of the biased view of the mainstream publications.
Most published work on gender differences are believed to fall into 2 categories of bias: Women and Men in Conversation, that have sought to explain the gender differences in communication and fall into the category of alpha bias. Jennifer Coates wrote about her studies involving gender separated discussion groups.Traditionally, the man was the main breadwinner of the family whilst it was usually the woman’s responsibility to look after the home.
Looking after the home. Traditionally, the man was the main breadwinner of the family whilst it was usually the woman’s responsibility to look after the home. Looking after the home. Language and Gender 1 Language and Gender 2 Language and Gender Sexism in English The tendency to speak of people as cultural stereotypes of their gender ‘He said, She said’ video The ways in which men and women talk, and misunderstand each other 3 Sexism in English The English language reflects the power that men have .
Gender Issues. It's not just the girls who are left behind in gifted education Boys in the arts, girls in math and science - gender IS an issue in gifted education, no matter which gender you are. Wardy, founder of the children’s products company, Pigtail Pals & Ballcap Buddies, has been at the center of online discussions addressing gender stereotyping of children.
Language and Gender. There are two different types of Language and Gender questions you could be asked about: representations of gender and gender in action.
For instance, magazine articles, adverts and books all include representations of gender (usually stereotypes) and not what males and females are really like.